Book Chapters

Sass, L. “Direct Manufacturing of Homes using Digital Fabrication”, In Ed. X Wang and N. Gu, Computational Design Methods and Technologies: Applications in CAD, CAM, and CAE Education, IGI Global (2012)

Sass, L., & Smithwick, D. (2013). Mass Customised Structures for Relief: Physical production with Digital Fabrication. Piroozfar and Piller (eds.), Mass Customisation and Personalisation in Architecture and Construction


Nathansohn, N., Mason, M., White, D. A., Ebdy, H. T., Yacoby, Y., Sharabi, H., & Sass, L. (2020). Design for disassembly: Using temporary fabrication for land politics in the Negev. International Journal of Architectural Computing, 18(2), 155-173

Su, Z., Chen, L., He, X., Yang, F., & Sass, L. (2018). Planar structures with automatically generated bevel joints. Computers & Graphics72, 98-105.

Chen, Lujie, and Lawrence Sass, (2017) "Generative computer-aided design: multi-modality large-scale direct physical production" Computer-Aided Design and Applications, Vol. 14 , Iss. 1,2017, 83-94.

Chen, Lujie, and Lawrence Sass. "Fresh Press Modeler: A generative system for physically based low fidelity prototyping." Computers & Graphics 54 (2016): 157-165.

Sass, Lawrence, Lujie Chen, and Woong Ki Sung. "Embodied prototyping: exploration of a design-fabrication framework for large-scale model manufacturing." Computer-Aided Design and Applications Vol. 13 Iss.1, 2016 124-137.

Smithwick, D., & Sass, L. (2014) Embodied Design Cognition: Action-Based Formalizations in Architectural Design. International Journal of Architectural Computing12(4) pp. 399-418, 2014

Griffith, K, Williams, R., Knight, T., Sass, L, Kamath, A., Cradle molding device: An automated CAD/CAM molding system for manufacturing composite materials as customizable assembly units for rural application, Automation in Construction, Vol. 21, 114-120, 2012

Knight, T., Sass, L. “Looks count: Computing and constructing visually expressive mass customized housing.” Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing, Vol. 24, 425-445, 2010

Sass, L., Shea, K. Parametric constructionist kits: Physical design and delivery system for rapid prototyping devices, International Journal of Architectural Computing, Vol. 07, No. 04, 623-642, 2008

Knight, T., Sass, L. “Looks count: Computing and constructing visually expressive mass customized housing.”Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing, Vol. 24, 425-445, 2010

Sass, L. “Physical design grammar: A production system for layered manufacturing machines.” Automation in Construction, Vol .17, No. 6, 691–704, 2008.

Sass, L. “A Palladian construction grammar: Design reasoning with shape grammars and rapid prototyping.” Environment and Planning B, Vol. 37, No. 1, 87–106, 2007.

Sass, L. “Synthesis of design production with integrated digital fabrication.” Automation in Construction, Vol. 16, No. 3, 298–310, 2007.

Sass, L., Botha, M. “Instant House: A model of design production with digital fabrication.” International Journal of Architectural Computing, Vol. 4, No. 4, 109–123, 2006.

Casalegno, F., Sass, L. “Connecting distant communities through video communication technologies in design studio workshops.” International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distant Learning, Vol. 3, No. 3, 71–84, 2005.

Sass, L. “A wood frame grammar: A generative system for digital fabrication.” International Journal of Architectural Computing, Vol. 4, No. 1, 51–67, 2005.

Sass, L., Oxman, R. “Materializing design: The implications of rapid prototyping in digital design.” Design Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, 325–355, 2005



Curth A, Brodesser T, Sass L, Mueller C (2021). Multi-objective optimization of 3D printed shell toolpaths. Recursive Segmentation: An Approach to Produce Large and Complex Designs

Bradley Camburn, Yuhui Wee, Lujie Chen, Kristin Wood, Lawrence Sass. (2019) Proceedings of CAD’19, Singapore, June 24-26, 2019, 358-362

Dritsas, S., Chen, L. and Sass, L., (2017) Large Scale Artifacts: Computation for Automated Spatial Lattice Design-to-Fabrication with Low-Cost 3D Printers (Best Presentation Award), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches, Suzhou, China.

Smithwick, D. and Sass, L. (2015). “Interactive Design Cognition and Computation,” Poster selected for presentation at the SUTD-MIT International Design Centre Design Summit, Singapore.

Smithwick, D. and Sass, L. (2014). “Physical Design Cognition: Embodied Intelligence for Taming the Digitally Fabricated Singapore Horses,” in Gero (ed) Proceedings from Design Computing and Cognition ‘14, London, England.

Smithwick, Daniel; Sass, Lawrence (2013) Physical Design Cognition: A Non-symbolic Formalization for Performing Design Knowledge, SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Chile - Valparaiso 20-22 November 2013

Smithwick, D., L. Sass, “Designing in hi fi, Digital fabrication for physical computing.” XVI SIGraDi Conference, Fortaleza, Brazil, November 14th 2012

Villalon, R., Lieberman, H., Sass, L. Breaking down brick walls: Design, construction, and prototyping fabrication knowledge in architecture. Computer Human Interaction Conference, Boston (Massachusetts), April 2009.

Arpak, A., Sass., L., Knight, T. A meta-cognitive inquiry into digital fabrication: Exploring the reciprocal action of design and construction in the making of a wall section. ECAADE, Istanbul (Turkey), September 2009.

Cardoso, D., Sass, L. Generative fabrication: Discussing creativity in the age of digital machinery. DCC 08, Atlanta (Georgia), June 2008.

Knight, T., Sass, L. Griffith, K., Kamath, A. Visual-physical grammars [Sociedad Iberoamericana de Gráfica Digital], Havana, Cuba, December 2008.

Kotospoulos, S., Sass, L. Teaching architectural design through computer modeling, rendering, and digital fabrication. [Sociedad Iberoamericana de Gráfica Digital], Havana, Cuba, December 2008.

Sass, L. Materializing a design with plywood., Predicting the future, ECAADE 2007, Frankfurt (Germany), September 2007.

Cardoso, D., Michaud, D., Sass, L. Soft façade: Steps into the definition of a friction-joined system for a responsive ETFE façade for high-rise buildings. Predicting the FutureECAADE 2007 Frankfurt (Germany), September 2007.

Griffith, K., Sass, L. Computing and materializing non-uniform shapes: An evolutionary approach to generate and digitally fabricate non-uniform masonry walls. CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan), 30 March–2 April 2006, 227–235.

Botha, M., Sass, L. Instant House: Design and digital fabrication of housing for developing environments. CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan), 30 March–2 April 2006, 209–216.

Sass, L. Towards a design science of design and fabrication with rapid prototyping. The First International Colloquium of Free Form Design, University of Delft (the Netherlands), 28–29 September 2006, 84–88.

Sass, L., Botha, M. The Instant House: A production system for construction with digital fabrication. Digital Fabrication 2006 [Proceedings of the First International Conference on Digital Fabrication, Denver (Colorado), 17–22 September 2006, 176–179.

Griffith, K., Sass, L., Michaud, D. A strategy for complex-curved building design: Design structure with bilateral contouring as integrally connected ribs. [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics], SIGraDi 2006 Santiago de Chile (Chile), 21–23 November 2006, 465–469.

Sass, L. A wood frame grammar. Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures/ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria), 20–22 June 2005, 383–392.

Sass, L., Shea, K., Powell, M. Design production: Constructing free form designs with rapid prototyping. Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings/ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Lisbon (Portugal), 21–24 September 2005, 261–268.

Loukissas, Y., Sass, L. Rule building: 3D printing: Operators, constraints, scripts. Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community/ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario), 8–14 November 2004, 176–185.

Sass, L. Rapid prototyping techniques for building program study. CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia/ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul (Korea), 28–30 April 2004, 655–670.

Sass, L. Design for self assembly of building components using rapid prototyping, Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings/ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark), 15–18 September 2004, 95–104.

Sass, L. Rule-based rapid prototyping of Palladio’s villa detail. Digital Design [21st eCAADe Conference Proceedings/ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria), 17–20 September 2003, 649–652.

Sass, L. Reconstructing Palladio’s villas: A computational analysis of Palladio’s villa design and construction process. Reinventing the Discourse: How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education, and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture/ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York), 11–14 October 2001, 212–226.